Whatever strategy is adopted with respect to technology and marketing, skill development should be an immediate concern because of the long gestation period for investments in human resources. The emerging trend points towards a shift from the mass production of standard products, using narrowly-skilled workers, towards more specialized products using a broadly skilled workforce and universal, multi-purpose machines.
Skills and know-how not only have to be improved, but are also required in areas which transcend a traditional industrial framework, because managerial and marketing expertise are increasing in importance. Hence, in establishing training programmes and institutions, both the short and long-term skill requirements of the textile/garment sectors have to be considered. Moreover, the long-term trend for the textile and garments industries to diminish in importance as providers of employment for women, to be replaced by high-tech industries and the services sector, has to be offset by forward looking strategies for industrial human resources development.
As producers are not likely to invest in what appears as a high risk proposition in the present business environment, governments will have to assume the role of initiator, coordinator, and cost-sharing partner of R&D and training schemes. This is of crucial importance in the development of the relevant skills and know-how, as proved by the experience. At the same time, the experience of these countries shows that the business community – for its own good – should take an interest and participate in the design and execution of human resource development measures.
Fairly advanced technologies are beginning to make an impact on the large-scale textile industry. How marketing influences children and youth is the focus of the Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? the most comprehensive review to date of the scientific evidence on the influence of food marketing on diets and diet-related health of children and youth. Current food and beverage marketing practices puts children’s long-term health at risk. If children and youth are to develop eating habits that help them avoid early onset of diet-related chronic diseases, they have to reduce their intake of high-calorie, low-nutrient snacks, fast foods, and sweetened drinks, which make up a high proportion of the products marketed to them.
Recommendations for different segments of society to guide the development of effective marketing and advertising strategies those promote healthier foods, beverages, and meal options to children and youth. Recommendations are provided for the food beverage, and restaurant industries; food retailers and trade associations; the entertainment industry and the media; parents and caregivers; schools; and the government.